By What Authority?
September 25, 2011
(Philippians 2, 1-13; Matthew 21, 23-32)
“By what authority are you doing these things, and who gave you this authority?” (Mt. 21,23)
Twenty -five years ago, at St Mary’s Church in Goldington, near Bedford, I was admitted as a Reader and licensed to this diocese.
At the service, I was handed a New Testament, and a Reader’s licence, and vested with a blue scarf, and the Bishop of Hertford said to me, “Receive authority to exercise the office of a Reader in this diocese”.
During the admission service, Reader ministry was described: as authorised lay ministers, to work together with clergy and other ministers to serve the Church of God, to lead public worship, to preach and teach the Word of God, to assist at the Eucharist and to share in pastoral and evangelistic work, and to encourage the ministries of all God’s people.
Different people feel the call to Reader ministry in different ways. I came to it because I was already teaching and leading worship as an ordinary lay person, and because I was preaching, either in person at family services or as a ‘ghost writer’, preparing sermon outlines for my vicar at that time. Then one day because the vicar was ill, I actually had to preach what I prepared – so I thought I ought to make myself legal!
The authority to preach and teach and participate in the Eucharist is given by the bishop – but ultimately it is not his authority. A bishop is given authority by the Church – and the Church’s authority comes from God through Christ.
Those of us who preach and teach need that authority because preaching and teaching the Word of God is a heavy responsibility. No-one is given that authority without a careful selection process and training. Selection begins with a person feeling a vocation, but that vocation is tested by a fairly long selection procedure, involving (in the case of Readers) discussions with their parish clergy and perhaps with a Diocesan Vocations Adviser and a Deanery Reader Adviser, and a selection day in which their vocation, spirituality, suitability for training, personality and relationships are explored by trained selectors. It just so happens my selection interviews took place here at St A’s. As I remember both Rev’d. Norman Moore and M J were on the panel.
Those who are selected then undergo training. It is quite rigorous – up to 3 years of study in theology, church history, doctrine, ethics, liturgy and spirituality – to a level about that of a first year university student. And again, St Andrew’s was involved in that: Norman Moore was my personal tutor, and I came here regularly to talk through my progress with him. When I did the training, it was almost entirely academic – you wrote lots of essays, but you didn’t get much of a chance to do anything practical, not even preaching, until the end. These days people are trained in the theory and the practice at the same time, and trainee Readers are required to preach and lead groups and write articles – and to get feed back from those who take part – as part of the assignments they do during training.
Training doesn’t finish when you are licensed. There are several years of compulsory post-licensing training, and all Readers (like clergy) are supposed to undertake regular in-service training. This can be at events organised by the Reader Association, like the two Reader Days each year, or at events organised by the Diocese, or things done on your own initiative, like the Masters Degree in Applied Theology I completed about 13 years ago.
But selection, and training and licensing are not the only source of a minister’s authority, though they are useful. These days it would not be wise to preach and teach unless you are well read and well-trained, since so many of the people you are addressing are as knowledgeable, perhaps even more knowledgeable about some of the matters you are addressing than many ministers are.
The question was raised recently whether Jesus (or any of the disciples) would have got through selection and training: the conclusion was probably not! They were all much too independent, didn’t conform, and operated outside the normal religious structures.
Yet, as the Gospels show, the chief priests and elders recognised that Jesus spoke and acted with authority.
‘Authority’ has many meanings. It can derive from knowledge and training. It can be synonymous with power, especially when associated with official structures, the government, the police force and the legal system. Readers’ authority is not like that. We don’t actually have a place within the official structures of the church; no automatic place on the PCC, or Deanery or Diocesan Synods, and Readers Committees are not part of the legal set up of the Church of England. We are licensed to parishes, but our licence lapses when an incumbent or priest-in-charge leaves and has to be renegotiated with the new person appointed; and some Readers have found themselves without a place in which to exercise their ministry because of this.
A third sort of authority is what is called ‘charismatic authority’ which comes from something inherent in the person who exercises it. It links up with other words which come from the same root as ‘authority, especially ‘author’ and authentic’. It means that, regardless of whether a person is authorised by the leaders of the institution, and regardless of what paper qualifications they may have, people trust in what they do and are convinced by what they say. This is the authority which the elders and chief priests recognised in Jesus.
A much older Reader colleague once said to me that Jesus was the first Reader: he was not a priest, but he preached, and taught and evangelised and exercised pastoral care of those he met, both within and outside the official religious structures. Readers too, have a foot in two worlds. We have duties within the church, especially in worship and teaching, but we also have a calling within the non-church world, especially since only a handful of Readers are paid by the Church, and most earn their living in secular employment (as Jesus and the disciples did). That is why Reader ministry is often described as a ‘bridge ministry’, charged with making connections between the world of church and the world of work and leisure.
At our Reader Day last weekend, Bishop Paul of Hertford, who is the Warden of Readers for this Diocese, spoke about this aspect of Reader Ministry. He said it was the task of Readers to ‘read’ the Church, to ‘read’ the Scriptures, and to ‘read’ the world, and to speak from our reading to the church in such a way that it brings life. He also said, since we were not part of the church like the clergy, our reading was likely to be clearer than that of bishops and clergy, who tend to see the church through a ‘purple haze’. (A quote from the Bishop of Buckingham.)
He also reminded us that Reader ministry is not about status – because all Christians have the same status, that of baptised sinners. He also said it is not about ‘our ministry’ because the only ministry in the church is God’s ministry, and all Christians simply share that in one way or another. The reason why one of the tasks of Readers is to encourage the ministry of all lay people is that we all have a ministry, whether it be singing, or reading, or hospitality and catering, or administration or pastoral care (as our Shepherds were reminded this last week); and each is equally important in the Body of Christ.
The Reader’s role is to preach and teach and evangelise and exercise pastoral care in the church in which we don’t have any power, in such a way that it reflects Christ’s ministry and Christ himself (and in that we are no different from anyone else who ministers in the Church). What we are called to reflect is set out in the wonderful passage from Philippians 2 that we heard earlier.
So, our authority as Readers comes ultimately not from our training, or from the licence we were given, but from how authentic our words and actions are, how close they are to the words and actions of Christ, who is the Word of God we are charged to preach and teach. It is always a struggle. We read and we think and we preach and we teach; but our words are always directed to ourselves first, and only then to others. Like everyone else who is given authority by the Church in God’s name we need to be constantly reflecting on our ministry; we need to be open to comment and discussion; but most of all, we need to be supported through prayer by those we minister to, and who minister to us.
Like the son in the parable, we strive, in the particular role we have been authorised to fill, to do the will of our Father; not in our own strength, but praying, as Paul did, that God is at work in us, enabling us to both will and work for his good pleasure.